As in many other developing nations, industrial development was limited during the colonial rule. It consisted of the traditional, rural craft industry dealing with cloth weaving, woodwork, and making of sugar, brass and leather products, except for the two modern industries of textiles and iron and steel.
Since 1950 government has attempted to expand and modernize the industry, especially through foreign aid, emphasizing in heavy metallurgical industries, and the manufacture of chemicals, and fertilizers in the public sector. Textiles and other light industries remained in the private sector. In 1993, a reversal of the industrial policy aiming at a more liberal participation of foreign investment was introduced.
The present distribution of industry shows a four-zone regional concentration, with major manufacturing regions located in northeastern India (west of Kolkata), the western coast near Mumbai-Pune area, and in the far south near Bangalore. The Kolkata-Jamshedpur area is the primary manufacturing region.
Jamshedpur is the oldest and largest of iron and steel manufacturing center in the country. In Kolkata region several manufacturing plants are located in a sprawling belt along the tributary of Ganga River. Jute manufacture is the main industry, followed by engineering, chemical, food processing, rubber, automotive parts, paper, glass, plastics and fertilizer industries, and the manufacture of a wide range of consumer goods.
The region is well served by a network of transport connections, a large urban market, port facilities of Kolkata, and draws upon the proximity to India’s main mineral belt in the Chota-Nagpur Plateau.
Mumbai-Pune industrial area is the country’s second ranking manufacturing region that had its early start in textiles. Since 1995, growth of several industries particularly those of engineering, chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, electrical, automobile, film and food processing led to industrial diversification. Power is provided by the nearby hydroelectric plants on the Western Ghats. Mumbai’s easy access to the Middle East oil is an additional advantage. India’s first major nuclear plant is also located nearby at Trombay. Ahmedabad-Baroda area dealing primarily with cotton textile manufacturing lies to the north of the Mumbai region.
Petrochemical and oil refining are some newer industries in the area. In south India lies India’s fourth major industrial region of Bangalore-Coimbatore. In addition to the traditional industry of textile, several newer industries have come up during the last two decades such as aircraft, automobile, locomotives, and telephone manufacture, mostly of which are in the public sector.
Essay on The Impact of Industrialization
908 Words4 Pages
During the 19th century, modifications and innovative ideas formed what would shape the face of the modern world. Industrialization was the shift from an agrarian and handmade economy to a machine and manufactured one (Judge 664). It transpired in Britain first and eventually spread across the Atlantic and the United States. Industrialization helped pave the way towards more workers’ rights, stronger nations, improved economies, and improvements for the middle and lower classes. The movement for workers’ rights became significant during the 19th century due to the formation of labor unions and the concept of collective bargaining. Workers were expected to work according to terms laid out by their employers, which included low pay and…show more content…
The British had an array of assets, such as the machinery and labor forces required to operate them, that contributed to them being the first industrialized nation (Judge 668). The Netherlands was the second industrialized economy after Britain. Their success was on account of earlier advances in agriculture, and coal and iron deposits along with assistance from the British. The nation built railways as banks provided credit for the financing of industrial ventures in the 1830s. France and German states lagged behind due to political and financial instability. However, after the political unification of Germany in 1871, the industrialization period transpired swiftly (Judge 669). The government supported railways, an education system to provide literate workers, and laws enabling corporations to collaborate in setting prices and production quotas. With care and skill, the nation even surpassed Britain in the 1900s. Alternating from republic to empire, the French lagged behind due to their diplomatic and military setbacks (Judge 681). The most prominent growth was seen in the United States after the Civil War (Judge 669). United as one nation, the country moved towards a fully supported industry with a huge labor force expanding due to mass immigration from Europe. With such significant growth, the United States was the dominant figure