WRITINGA POSITION PAPER
The following material explains how to produce a position paper (sometimes calleda point of view paper). A template is provided that outlines the major parts ofa good position paper. Keep inmind, however, that this is just a guide. Talk to your TAs about theirindividual expectations. Your TAs may want you to include some criteria that donot appear in this outline. Make sure you check with them.
Like a debate, a position paper presents one side of an arguable opinionabout an issue. The goal of a position paper is to convince the audience thatyour opinion is valid and defensible. Ideas that you are considering need to becarefully examined in choosing a topic, developing your argument, andorganizing your paper. It is very important to ensure that you are addressingall sides of the issue and presenting it in a manner that is easy for youraudience to understand. Your job is to take one side of the argument andpersuade your audience that you have well-founded knowledge of the topic beingpresented. It is important to support your argument with evidence to ensure thevalidity of your claims, as well as to refute the counterclaims to show thatyou are well informed about both sides.
To take a side on a subject, you should first establish the arguability of atopic that interests you. Ask yourself the following questions to ensure thatyou will be able to present a strong argument:
- Is it a real issue, with genuine controversy and uncertainty?
- Can you identify at least two distinctive positions?
- Are you personally interested in advocating one of these positions?
- Is the scope of the issue narrow enough to be manageable?
In the CMNS 130 courseware thearticle by Fleras begins to set out a range of issues you may choose toaddress. Your tutorial leader will also have a set of suggested paper topics.The suggested paper topics will also be available on the CMNS 130 website.
Analyzing an Issue and Developing anArgument
Once your topic is selected, you should do some research on the subjectmatter. While you may already have an opinion on your topic and an idea aboutwhich side of the argument you want to take, you need to ensure that yourposition is well supported. Listing thepro and con sides of the topic will help you examine your ability to supportyour counterclaims, along with a list of supporting evidence for both sides.Supporting evidence includes the following:
Type of Information
Type of Source
How to find these sources
introductory information and overviews
directories, encyclopedias, handbooks
Use the Library catalogue
books, government reports
Library catalogue, Canadian Research Index, Government web sites
government agencies and associations
Statistics Canada, Canadian Research Index, journal articles
position papers and analyses
association and institute reports
Library catalogue, web sites
Many of these sources can be locatedonline through the library catalogue and electronic databases, or on the Web.You may be able to retrieve the actual information electronically or you mayhave to visit a library to find the information in print. The librarian’spresentation on October 10th after your mid-term exam will assist inyour orientation of the SFU library.
** You do not have to useall of the above supporting evidence in your papers. This is simply a list ofthe various options available to you. Consult your separate assignment sheet toclarify the number and type of sources expected.
Considering your audience and determining your viewpoint
Once you have made your pro and con lists, compare the information side byside. Considering your audience, as well as your own viewpoint, choose theposition you will take.
Considering your audience does not mean playing up to the professoror the TA. To convince a particular person that your own views are sound, youhave to consider his or her way of thinking. If you are writing a paper for asociology professor/TA obviously your analysis would be different from what itwould be if you were writing for an economics, history, or communicationsprofessor/TA. You will have to make specific decisions about the terms youshould explain, the background information you should supply, and the detailsyou need to convince that particular reader.
In determining your viewpoint, ask yourself the following:
- Is your topic interesting? Remember that originality counts. Be aware that your professor/TA will probably read a number of essays on the same topic(s), so any paper that is inventive and original will not only stand out but will also be appreciated.
- Can you manage the material within the specifications set by the instructor?
- Does your topic assert something specific, prove it, and where applicable, propose a plan of action?
- Do you have enough material or proof to support your opinion?
___A. Introduce the topic
___B. Provide background on the topic to explain why it is important
___C. Assert the thesis (your view of the issue). More on thesis statements canbe found below.
Your introduction has a dual purpose: to indicate both the topic and yourapproach to it (your thesis statement), and to arouse your reader’s interest inwhat you have to say. One effective way of introducing a topic is to place itin context – to supply a kind of backdrop that will put it in perspective. Youshould discuss the area into which your topic fits, and then gradually leadinto your specific field of discussion (re: your thesis statement).
II. Counter Argument
___A. Summarize the counterclaims
___B. Provide supporting information for counterclaims
___C. Refute the counterclaims
___D. Give evidence for argument
You can generate counterarguments by asking yourself what someone whodisagrees with you might say about each of the points you've made or about yourposition as a whole. Once you have thought up some counterarguments, considerhow you will respond to them--will you concede that your opponent has a pointbut explain why your audience should nonetheless accept your argument? Will youreject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? Either way, you willwant to leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger thanopposing arguments.
When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present eachargument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish.You want to show that you have seriously considered the many sides of theissue, and that you are not simply attacking or mocking your opponents.
It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in somedepth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterargumentsand replies.
Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. Ifconsidering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go backand revise your original argument accordingly.
For more on counterarguments visit: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/argument.html
III. Your Argument
___A. Assert point #1 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
___B. Assert point #2 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
___C. Assert point #3 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
You may have more than 3 overall points to your argument, but you shouldnot have fewer.
___A. Restate your argument
___B. Provide a plan of action but do not introduce new information
The simplest and most basic conclusion is one that restates the thesis indifferent words and then discusses itsimplications.
Stating Your Thesis
A thesis is a one-sentencestatement about your topic. It's an assertion about your topic, something youclaim to be true. Notice that a topic alone makes no such claim; it merelydefines an area to be covered. Tomake your topic into a thesis statement, you need to make a claimabout it, make it into a sentence. Look back over your materials--brainstorms,investigative notes, etc.--and think about what you believe to be true. Thinkabout what your readers want or need to know. Then write a sentence, preferablyat this point, a simple one, stating what will be the central idea of yourpaper. The result should look something like this:
OriginalSubject: an important issue inmy major field
FocusedTopic:media technologyeducation for communication majors
Thesis:Theories of media technology deserve a more prominent place in thisUniversity’s Communication program
Or if your investigations led you to a different belief:
Thesis: Communication majors at this University receive asolid background in theories of media technology
It's always good to have a thesis you can believe in.
Notice, though, that a sentence stating an obvious and indisputable truthwon't work as a thesis:
Thesis: This University has a Communication major.
That's a complete sentence, and it asserts something to be true, but as athesis it's a dead end. It's a statement of fact, pure and simple, and requireslittle or nothing added. A good thesisasks to have more said about it. It demands some proof. Yourjob is to show your reader that your thesis is true.
Remember, you can't just pluck a thesis out of thin air. Even if you haveremarkable insight concerning a topic, it won't be worth much unless you canlogically and persuasively support it in the body of your essay. A thesis isthe evolutionary result of a thinking process, not a miraculous creation.Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading the essayassignment. Deciding on a thesis does not come first. Before you can come up with an argument on anytopic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possiblerelationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts orsimilarities), and think about the beneath-the-surface significance of theserelationships. After this initial exploration of the question at hand, you canformulate a "working thesis," an argument that you think will makesense of the evidence but that may need adjustment along the way. Inother words, do not show up at your TAs office hours expecting them to help youfigure out your thesis statement and/or help organize your paper unless youhave already done some research.
For more information regarding thesis statements visit: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/thesis.html
Writing with style and clarity
Many students make the mistake of thinking that the content of their paperis all that matters. Although the content is important, it will not mean muchif the reader can’t understand what you are trying to say. You may have somegreat ideas in your paper but if you cannot effectively communicate them, youwill not receive a very good mark. Keep the following in mind when writing yourpaper:
Diction refers to the choice of words for the expression of ideas; theconstruction, disposition, and application of words in your essay, with regardto clearness, accuracy, variety, etc.; mode of expression; and language. Thereis often a tendency for students to use fancy words and extravagant images inhopes that it will make them sound more intelligent when in fact the result isa confusing mess. Although this approach can sometimes be effective, it isadvisable that you choose clear words and be as precise in the expression ofyour ideas as possible.
Creating clear paragraphs is essential. Paragraphs come in so many sizes andpatterns that no single formula could possibly cover them all. The two basicprinciples to remember are these:
1) A paragraph is a means of developing and framing an idea orimpression. As a general rule, you should address only one major idea perparagraph.
2) The divisions between paragraphs aren’t random, but indicate ashift in focus. In other words you must carefully and clearly organize theorder of your paragraphs so that they are logically positioned throughout yourpaper. Transitions will help you with this.
For further information on paragraph development visit: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/paragraphs.html
In academic writing your goal is to convey information clearly andconcisely, if not to convert the reader to your way of thinking. Transitionshelp you to achieve these goals by establishing logical connections betweensentences, paragraphs, and sections of your papers. In other words, transitionstell readers what to do with the information you present them. Whether singlewords, quick phrases or full sentences, they function as signs for readers thattell them how to think about, organize, and react to old and new ideas as theyread through what you have written.
Transitions signal relationships between ideas. Basically, transitionsprovide the reader with directions for how to piece together your ideas into alogically coherent argument. They are words with particular meanings that tellthe reader to think and react in a particular way to your ideas. In providingthe reader with these important cues, transitions help readers understand thelogic of how your ideas fit together.
also, in the same way, just as ... so too, likewise, similarly
but, however, in spite of, on the one hand ... on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, in contrast, on the contrary, still, yet
first, second, third, ... next, then, finally
after, afterward, at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously, subsequently, then
for example, for instance, namely, specifically, to illustrate
even, indeed, in fact, of course, truly
above, adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front, in back, nearby, there
Cause and Effect
accordingly, consequently, hence, so, therefore, thus
Additional Support or Evidence
additionally, again, also, and, as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then
finally, in a word, in brief, in conclusion, in the end, in the final analysis, on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize, in sum, in summary
For more information on transitions visit: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/transitions.html
Grammar and Spelling
You must make certain that your paper is free from grammar and spellingmistakes. Mechanical errors are usually the main reason for lack of clarity inessays, so be sure to thoroughly proof read your paper before handing it in. Forhelp with common errors in grammar and usage consult the following websites:
Plagiarism and academic honesty
Plagiarism is a form of stealing; as with other offences against the law, ignoranceis no excuse. The way to avoid plagiarismis to give credit where credit is due. If you are using someone else’s idea,acknowledge it, even if you have changed the wording or just summarized themain points.
To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use
- another person's idea, opinion, or theory;
- any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings--any pieces of information--that are not common knowledge;
- quotations of another person's actual spoken or written words; or
- paraphrase of another person's spoken or written words.
In addition to plagiarism,SFU has policies regarding other forms of academic dishonesty. For moreinformation on SFU’s policies regarding academic honesty consult yourundergraduate calendar or http://www.sfu.ca/policies/teaching/t10-02.htm.If any of the University’s policies are not clear you must ask your professoror TA for clarification. Again, ignorance is no excuse.
The information included in the document “Writing a Position Paper” wasadapted from the following sources:
Guilford, C.(2001). Occasions forArgumentative Essays. Writing Argumentative Essays. Retrieved August 26, 2002 from the World Wide Web:http://www.powa.org/argufrms.htmPreviously adapted from: Hairston, M. (1982) A Contemporary Rhetoric(3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Northey, M. (1993). Making Sense: a student’s guide to research, writing,and style (3rd ed.). Toronto: Oxford University Press.
UHWO Writing Center (1998) Writing a Position Paper. Retrieved August 26,2002 from the World Wide Web: http://homepages.uhwo.hawaii.edu/~writing/position.htm
UNC-CH Writing Center(2000). ConstructingThesis Statements. Writing Center Handouts. Retrieved August 26, 2002 from theWorld Wide Web:http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/thesis.html
UNC-CH Writing Center(2000). EffectiveAcademic Writing: The Argument. Writing Center Handouts. Retrieved August 26,2002 from the World Wide Web: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/argument.html
UNC-CH Writing Center(2000). Paragraph Development. Writing CenterHandouts.Retrieved August 26, 2002 from the World Wide Web:http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/thesis.html
UNC-CH Writing Center(2000). Transitions. Writing Center Handouts. Retrieved August 26,2002 from the World Wide Web:http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/thesis.html
Although writing an essay is daunting for many people, it can be pretty straight-forward. This page is a general recipe for constructing an essay, not just in philosophy, but in most other humanities disciplines (such as English, History, Religious Studies, etc.) and perhaps the social sciences. It should be an appropriate guide for writing at the middle school, high school, and lower college levels. The typical assignment I have in mind will be an argumentative essay, in which you argue for something, even if just an interpretation of someone an author’s work.
Note that what I provide here are only general guidelines. Be sure to check whether your instructor has different ones. If your instructor has not given clear guidelines, then these should suffice, since they are pretty standard.
Note: If you need help figuring out how to write an essay in philosophy specifically and at the college level, see my “Writing in Philosophy.” If you want to know how I evaluate students on a paper assignment, see my “Grading Rubric for Paper Assignments.”
Table of Contents:
- Essay Structure
- General Writing Tips
- Style & Punctuation
- Grammatical Errors
- Humorous Writing Guidelines
- Citations & References
- Relevant Links
- Typed – use a word processor (such as Microsoft Word) on a computer.
- Spacing – the space between lines on the page is typically double-space. However, it may be changing. (I now prefer single-spaced myself.)
- Font size – standard size of the text is usually 12-point.
- Font style – standard font, such as Times New Roman.
2. Essay Structure
The first thing to notice is that the basic form of an essay is quite logical. Let’s look at the standard structure of an essay starting with the most general. You can divide your paper into three main sections:
For the introduction section, you will need to do two things: introduce your topic and provide a thesis statement. Typically, these two tasks should be accomplished using only one paragraph for a short paper, but can be longer for longer papers.
First, introduce your topic. The introductory paragraph(s) should briefly orient the reader to the topic and provide a conceptual map of the rest of the paper.
Second, provide a thesis statement.
Your thesis statement is the main point of your paper and should address the paper topic assigned by your instructor.
Make sure your thesis statement is clear, specific, declarative, and on-topic. You should be able to provide the thesis statement in one or two sentences (most instructors prefer one, concise sentence) for a fairly short paper (about 1-8 pages). It is usually best stated at the end of your introduction section (the end of the first paragraph if your introduction section is only a single paragraph in length).
The body section should consist of at least several paragraphs where you will provide support for your thesis statement in the form of reasons, evidence, arguments, justification, and so on. That is, you have something you want to communicate or argue for (your thesis) and here is your chance to explain it in detail, support it, and defend it.
Each paragraph in the body section should have a topic sentence and, perhaps, a transition sentence. The topic sentence is the particular point you are trying to make in the paragraph. It’s sort of like a mini-thesis statement. It should usually be the first sentence of the paragraph, though in some cases it is appropriate to be the second sentence. A transition sentence is a sentence that helps link the points of each paragraph together by making a smooth transition from the previous paragraph. It can be done in the first sentence of the new paragraph or the last sentence of the previous one. A good way to tie all the points together throughout the body section is to have them all clearly state how they support the thesis statement. That way it is obvious that all of your paragraphs tie together. Note that the first sentence of the paragraph may satisfy both goals. That is, you may have a topic sentence that also serves to transition well. Another option is to have a transition sentence first and then a separate topic sentence following it.
The summary section (often misleadingly called a “conclusion”) is a short recap of what you have said in the essay. You might want to provide a slightly different version of your thesis statement as the first sentence of this paragraph and then provide a few sentences that sum up what the body section said in support of the thesis statement. The summary section should be only one paragraph long for a short paper, but can be longer for longer papers. (Some instructors, like me, even think that summary sections are unnecessary for short papers.)
Note: It’s a good idea to put these sections titles in as headings in your paper to organize and break things up for yourself and your reader. If your instructor doesn’t want headings in your paper, just take them out before you print it to turn it in. It is also helpful for long papers to put in additional headings, perhaps even sub-headings, to break up the body section (such as “First Argument,” “Second Argument,” and so on).
3. General Writing Tips
1. Think & Discuss
Familiarize yourself with the material before you begin writing. You won’t be able to write much if you don’t have anything to put on the page. Think about your paper topic as soon as you get the paper assignment prompt from your instructor. This can be facilitated in a number of ways. A great way is to discuss the issue with your instructor or teaching assistant. You can even try talking about it to a friend or family member.
2. Rough Drafts & Editing
Write rough drafts ahead of time. For most people, writing their rough ideas down as rough drafts helps them see their ideas more clearly than even thinking about them. Then take a break from the essay (this usually requires at least a half, if not full, day). After the lengthy break (for example, the next day), go back and edit more. Repeat this process as necessary until finished. (This is why it is important to start working on your essay far in advance!)
Also, don’t be afraid to just type without thinking too much about whether it’s any good. You can always go back and edit it. Many people find it best to just sit down and write a lot without much reflection. Just make sure you have enough time to go back and edit.
Once you have a final draft ready, have someone read it to look for errors and provide feedback. Many instructors encourage students to turn in early drafts to them for comments. Just be sure to check and see if your instructor allows you to do so.
4. Style & Punctuation
Overall, the paper should demonstrate a command of the writing process and the author’s care in crafting it. Avoid errors of spelling, punctuation, grammar, sentence structure, verb tense, and vocabulary, such as the following:
- Put punctuation inside quotations (for American writing). If you put something in quotations that is immediately followed by punctuation (such as commas or colons), then put the punctuation mark inside the last quotation mark.
Correct: John Doe claims that, “Britney Spears is a tool.”
Incorrect: John Doe claims that, “Britney Spears is a tool”.
Another example: “I’m in love with Space Ghost,” Bjork proclaimed.
(Note: I know this rule doesn’t seem right. The British style of writing has the punctuation outside the quotation marks, which makes more sense. However, the American style requires that you write it the other way.)
- Put parenthetical citations outside of quotations.
Correct: “Blah, blah, blah, this is a quote” (Author 32).
Incorrect: “Blah, blah, blah, this is a quote (Author 32).”
- Introduce quotes. Introduce quotes, preferably by acknowledging who is saying it.
Example: In the article “War Without End,” John Doe says, “…blah, blah, and blah” (36).
Notice the three dots in the quote (…), which is called an elipses. You’re supposed to put those in when you are not quoting the whole sentence. It denotes that something came before (or after) the part of the sentence you are quoting.
- Generally, spell out numbers. For example, write ‘three,’ not ‘3.’ Exceptions can be made for larger numbers, like 1089, especially when you are simply making reference to a numeral.
- Avoid informal abbreviations and notations. For example, don’t write ‘&’ for ‘and’ or ‘b/c’ for ‘because.’ However, there are notations and abbreviations that are conventions in professional writing; for example: ‘e.g.’ is often used for ‘for example’ and ‘etc.’ for ‘et cetera’ and ‘p.’ for ‘page.’ However, for this last one, note that it is only used in citing sources or references, not in other sentences. So, for example, don’t write “The p. had many words of wisdom written on it.”
- Use versus mention. In general, when you mention (or talk about) rather than use a word you should put quotes (single or double) around the word. This is not necessary when you use a word.
Incorrect: John contains the letter h.
Correct: ‘John’ contains the letter ‘h.’
(Note: Some people simply italicize the word to indicate mention. I follow this convention here sometimes so that it is easier to read. However, it can get confused with emphasis, which is what italics are more commonly used for. Also, the standard for use-mention indication is not exactly clear. Most people use quotes and use single quotes for British style and double quotes for American style. I tend to use single quotes just to distinguish them from quoting what someone has said.)
- Write well and consider your reader! Good writing keeps the reader’s perspective in mind. It takes work to read someone’s ideas. You owe it to your readers to explain your ideas clearly and ideally in a pleasing manner. To become a better writer in terms of style, read widely and find good writers to emulate (some excellent non-fiction writers that come to mind: Paul Bloom, Rebecca Goldstein, and Steven Pinker).
- Recognize the Flexibility of Writing Rules. You’ll notice that skilled writers don’t always follow all the “rules” for writing. They know that the rules are somewhat flexible and can even be explicitly broken for good effect at times. You might be able to get away with the same, but it’s good to practice working well within them for graded papers!
5. Common Grammatical Errors to Avoid
- Misusing i.e. and e.g.Do not confuse these two. They do not mean the same thing!
i.e. = that is
e.g. = for example
(Many people think that ‘i.e’ stands for ‘in example.’ That is false. Both are abbreviations for two different latin phrases.)
- Using ‘if’ when you should use ‘whether’.
Incorrect: I do not know if this is true.
Correct: I do not know whether this is true.
Correct: If this is true, then you are wrong.
- Confusing ‘there’ with ‘their.’ ‘Their’ indicates possession, ‘there’ does not.
Incorrect: There problem was a lack of courage.
Correct: Their problem was a lack of courage.
Incorrect: Their are a lot of problems here.
Correct: There are a lot of problems here.
- Misconnecting verbs.
Incorrect: We should try and change the law.
Correct: We should try to change the law.
- Letting your accent get in the way of things.
Incorrect: Mind and brain are one in the same thing.
Correct: Mind and brain are one and the same thing.
Incorrect: Socrates should of fought.
Correct: Socrates should have fought.
- Improper form of the plural possessive of names.
Incorrect: Descarte’s problem was ….
Incorrect: Descartes problem was….
Correct: Descartes’ problem was….
Correct: Descartes’s problem was….
(Note: Either of the last two is acceptable only for names ending in ‘s’ like ‘Descartes’ or ‘Jesus.’ Otherwise, always go with the last example–i.e., add an apostrophe and an ‘s.’ The convention is usaully to not add an extra ‘s’ for old names, such as ‘Descartes’ and ‘Jesus.’ So, to say that this is the book that Rawls owns, people often write: “This is Rawls’s book.”)
- Improper use of semi-colons.
Incorrect: The following will be on the test; Locke, Hume, Parfit.
Incorrect: Although there is no right answer; there are many wrong answers.
Correct: There is no right answer; there are many wrong answers.
(The Rule: Use a semi-colon only where you could use a period instead. In other words, a semi-colon must join two clauses that could stand by themselves as complete sentences. The semi-colin is just used to indicate that the two sentences are connected or intimately related.)
- Confusing ‘then’ and ‘than’.
Incorrect: If this is true, than I’m a fool.
Incorrect: I am more of a fool then you are.
Correct: If this is true, then I’m a fool.
Correct: I am more of a fool than you are.
- Its versus it’s.
Incorrect: Its easy to make this mistake.
Incorrect: It’s pages are crumbling.
Correct: It’s easy to make this mistake.
Correct: Its pages are crumbling.
(Note: partly adapted from Pasnau’s Top 10 Writing Errors)
6. Humorous Writing Guidelines
- Be more or less specific.
- Use not bad grammars.
- Proofread carefully to see if you any words out.
- Don’t use no double negatives.
- Avoid tumbling off the cliff of triteness into the dark abyss of overused metaphors.
- Take care that your verb and your subject is in agreement.
- No sentence fragments.
- Placing a comma between subject and predicate, is not correct.
- Who needs rhetorical questions?
- Use the apostrophe in it’s proper place.
- Avoid colloquial stuff, like totally.
- Avoid those run-on sentences you know the ones they stop and then start again they should be separated with semicolons.
- The passive voice should be used infrequently.
- And avoid starting sentences with a conjunction.
- Excessive use of exclamation points can be disastrous!!!!
- Exaggeration is a million times worse than understatement.
- Stamp out and eliminate redundancy because, if you reread your work, you will find on rereading that a great deal of repetition can be avoided by rereading and editing, so reread your work and improve it by editing out the repetition you noticed during the rereading.
- It’s incumbent on one to employ the vernacular and eschew archaisms.
- It’s not O.K. to use ampersands & informal abbreviations.
- Parenthetical remarks (however relevant) are usually (but not always) an obstacle for readers (and make it harder on readers even if you’re being careful).
7. Citations & References
If you are doing an essay that involves researching or you quote anyone in your essay, then you need to cite your sources. There are many different formalized styles for citing sources. For example: MLA (Modern Language Association), Chicago (Turabian), APA (American Psychological Association), and more. The most standard for English papers is MLA. You can buy the official books on how to properly cite sources according to certain styles, but you can also find a lot of that information on the Internet.
Here are a few Internet resources for citation styles: